Credit points


Campus offering

No unit offerings are currently available for this unit


PARA210 Paramedic Theory: Medical 2

Teaching organisation

150 hours of focused learning.

Unit rationale, description and aim

Paramedics encounter situations and problems that require expedient, insightful and competent decision making to achieve optimal patient outcomes. While the number of pre-hospital gynaecological, obstetric, newborn, and paediatric emergencies are small, the acuity in such cases can be high. This unit is required by students to ensure they achieve the knowledge and skills to manage gynaecological, obstetric, newborn and paediatric conditions and emergencies.

This unit will introduce students to the theoretical aspects of pathophysiology and paramedic management of gynaecological, obstetric, newborn and paediatric patients whose presentations, needs and management vary from the general population. Students will also develop knowledge and practical skills in birthing, care of the newborn, and the pre and post-partum woman. This content will be complimented by the unit PARA302 Paramedic Practice: Population Variances which facilitates the application of this knowledge in a clinical context.

The aim of this unit is to assist students to achieve an advanced knowledge of gynaecological, obstetric, newborn and paediatric conditions and emergencies to ensure the optimal outcomes for patients and enhance the professional practice of paramedics.

Learning outcomes

To successfully complete this unit you will be able to demonstrate you have achieved the learning outcomes (LO) detailed in the below table.

Each outcome is informed by a number of graduate capabilities (GC) to ensure your work in this, and every unit, is part of a larger goal of graduating from ACU with the attributes of insight, empathy, imagination and impact.

Explore the graduate capabilities.

On successful completion of this unit, students should be able to:

LO1 - Outline current best practice management of the presentations related to the special population groups explored in the pre, in and post hospital setting and relate management of presentations to the concept of time criticality (GA1, GA5,GA8) 

LO2 - Differentiate provisional diagnoses of various presentations from within various special population groups on the basis of understanding of pathophysiology with reference to available clinical data (GA3, GA4, GA5, GA8)  

LO3 - Identify common emergencies in special populations and describe their incidence, pathophysiology, implications, assessment and management of care of individuals from these populations (GA5, GA10). 

LO4 - Describe the unique health issues associated with the older adult population in Australia and outline pre-hospital paramedic management of the common illnesses associated with older adulthood (GA1, GA5, GA8) 

LO5 - Describe the physical, cognitive and psychosocial impacts of disabilities, chronic illness and co-morbidities across each stage of the lifespan and describe the appropriate pre-hospital paramedic management of these populations. (GA1, GA4, GA5) 

LO6 - Critically appraise current paramedic management strategies, with particular reference to their ability to cater for the needs of specific sociocultural groups (GA4, GA5, GA8, GA9) 

Graduate attributes

GA1 - demonstrate respect for the dignity of each individual and for human diversity 

GA3 - apply ethical perspectives in informed decision making

GA4 - think critically and reflectively 

GA5 - demonstrate values, knowledge, skills and attitudes appropriate to the discipline and/or profession 

GA8 - locate, organise, analyse, synthesise and evaluate information 

GA9 - demonstrate effective communication in oral and written English language and visual media 

GA10 - utilise information and communication and other relevant technologies effectively.

Paramedicine Board of Australia Professional Capabilities for Registered Paramedics

Website of capabilities:

Standard/Attributes/CriteriaLearning Outcomes

1.3, 3.2, 3.3, 5.2, 5.4


3.1, 3.2, 3.3, 5.2, 5.4


1.3, 3.2, 3.3, 5.2


1.3, 3.2, 3.3, 5.2


1.3, 3.2, 3.3, 5.2


3.1, 3.2, 3.3, 5.2



Topics will include: 

  • Special populations: 
  • Disability 
  • Bariatric clients 
  • Individuals from culturally and linguistically diverse groups 
  • The older adult - geriatrics 
  • Anatomy and physiology of reproductive system 
  • Gynaecological emergencies 
  • Ectopic pregnancy 
  • Pelvic Inflammatory disease 
  • Ruptured ovarian cyst 
  • Vaginal bleeding 
  • Other gynaecological aetiologies 
  • Conditions associated with the male genitalia and perineal structures  
  • Epididymitis, orchitis 
  • Testicular torsion 
  • Varicocele, haematocele, hydrocele, spermatocele  
  • Priapism 
  • Obstetrics  
  • Assessment of pregnant woman 
  • Anatomical and physiological changes in pregnancy 
  • Trauma and the pregnant woman 
  • Normal birthing 
  • Complicated obstetric presentations 
  • Placenta Previa, Abrupto Placenta 
  • Inversion of the uterus 
  • Cord prolapsed 
  • Breech presentation 
  • Shoulder dystocia 
  • Preeclampsia / eclampsia 
  • Post-partum haemorrhage 
  • Multiple births 
  • Abortion / miscarriage / stillbirth  
  • APGAR assessment 
  • Care of the newborn 
  • Neonatal resuscitation 
  • Associated pharmacology  
  • Paediatrics 
  • PETS / NETS 
  • Common injury/illness management  
  • Paediatric medical emergencies 
  • Sudden Infant Death Syndrome 
  • Paediatric trauma  
  • Child abuse 
  • Paediatric resuscitation  
  • Management 
  • Associated pharmacology  

Learning and teaching strategy and rationale

Modes of delivery in this unit include lectures, tutorials, online activities and self-directed study. Consistent with adult learning principles, the teaching and learning strategies used within these modes of delivery will provide students with advanced knowledge and skills relevant to professional paramedic practice. These strategies will also support students in meeting the aim, learning outcomes and graduate attributes of the unit and the broader course learning outcomes. Learning and teaching strategies will reflect respect for the individual as an independent learner. Students will be expected to take responsibility for their learning and to participate actively with peers.  


Located in the third/final year of the programme, this unit includes some face-to-face teaching hours during which clinical case scenarios are used to assist students in linking theory with practice, and an increased online component of learning. Lectures are utilised to convey content and its central principles while computer-assisted learning assists students in applying theory to clinical practice and to build critical reflective skills. Online materials provide students with the opportunity to manage the significant component of directed, self-motivated study required for graduate practice and life-long learning skills.  

Assessment strategy and rationale

A range of assessment items consistent with University assessment requirements and policy will be used to ensure students achieve the unit learning outcomes and attain the graduate attributes. 


Third year sees the students continue their transition toward being an independent learner. The case study engages final year students with theirpending practice environment. The examination and quiz evaluates knowledge and understanding critical to management of groups whose presentations, needs and management vary from the general population. These groups include gynaecological, obstetric, new-born, and paediatric patients. These assessments are required to build student knowledge and skills which, by the conclusion of this programme, will enable the student to graduate as a safe and effective paramedic. 

Overview of assessments

Brief Description of Kind and Purpose of Assessment TasksWeightingLearning OutcomesGraduate Attributes

Examination ( 2 hours) 

Enables students to demonstrate overall knowledge and understanding of content in the unit. 


LO1, LO2, LO3, LO4, LO5, LO6  

GA1, GA3, GA4, GA5, GA8, 

GA9,  GA10 

Case Study (1,200 words) 

Enables students to articulate their knowledge and understanding of the management of gynaecological, obstetric, new-born, or paediatric patients. 


LO1, LO2 

GA1, GA3, GA4, GA5, GA8 

Online Quiz (equivalent 800 words) 

Enables students to demonstrate overall knowledge and understanding of content in the unit. 


LO3, LO4, LO5 

GA5, GA10 

Representative texts and references

Australian Resuscitation Council (2010). Australian resuscitation guidelines. Retrieved from 

Ambulance Victoria (2016). Ambulance Victoria clinical practice guidelines for ambulance and MICA paramedics. Doncaster: Ambulance Victoria. 

Ambulance Victoria (2015). Clinical work instructions. Doncaster, Victoria: Ambulance Victoria. 

Copstead, L., & Banasik, J. (Eds). (2013). Pathophysiology (5th ed.). Philadelphia, PA: Saunders. 

Guyton, A.C., & Hall, J.E. (2016). Guyton and Hall textbook of medical physiology (13th ed.). Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier. 

McCance, K., & Huether. S, (2014). Pathophysiology: The biologic basis for disease in adults and children (7th ed.). St Louis: Mosby. 

Queensland Ambulance Service (2017). Clinical practice guidelines (CPG) and clinical practice procedures (CPP). Brisbane: Queensland Ambulance Service. 

Queensland Ambulance Service (2017). Drug therapy protocols (DTP). Brisbane: Queensland Ambulance Service. 

Samuals, M. & Wieteska, S. (Eds). (2017). Advanced paediatric life support: A practical approach to emergencies (6th Aust. & NZ ed.). Chichester, West Sussex, UK: John Wiley & Sons Inc 

Sanders, M. J. (2012). Mosby’s paramedic textbook (4th ed.). St Louis: Mosby. 

Weiner, G.M., Zaichkin, J., & Kattwinkel, J. (Eds). (2016). Textbook of neonatal resuscitation. (7th ed.). Elks Grove Village, IL: American Academy of Paediatrics. 

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