Credit points


Campus offering

No unit offerings are currently available for this unit


PARA210 Paramedic Theory: Medical 2 AND PARA211 Paramedic Practice: Medical 2 OR PARA213 Paramedic Theory and Practice: Medical 2

Unit rationale, description and aim

This clinical integration unit provides students with the opportunity to consolidate theory, practice and expertise acquired in previous and concurrent units. Furthermore, it explores issues relating to the professional practice of paramedics and the unique challenges faced by paramedics as their role and scope of practice evolves to meet the changing needs of Australian society. With areas of the health care infrastructure struggling to cope with changing population needs, paramedics are more frequently attending patients with chronic illness. This unit is required by students to assist them to understand demographic changes and associated health care trends in Australia, in addition to improving their clinical knowledge of a range of distinctive population groups.

The aim of this unit is to assist students to understand the changing health needs of the Australian population, how the change may impact their professional paramedic role, and how to provide health care to a range of distinctive population groups.

Learning outcomes

To successfully complete this unit you will be able to demonstrate you have achieved the learning outcomes (LO) detailed in the below table.

Each outcome is informed by a number of graduate capabilities (GC) to ensure your work in this, and every unit, is part of a larger goal of graduating from ACU with the attributes of insight, empathy, imagination and impact.

Explore the graduate capabilities.

On successful completion of this unit, students should be able to:

LO1 - Assess a person’s health status and potential underlying pathology in the pre-hospital environment and apply a clinical decision making framework to manage individuals with complex acute or chronic health problems inclusive of people from special population groups; (GA1, GA4, GA5, GA7)

LO2 - Apply theoretical knowledge of pathophysiology and pharmacology in caring for individuals  in the pre-hospital setting and develop and implement a management plan for the care of such individuals including people from special population groups; (GA4, GA5)

LO3 - Relate alterations in the structure and function of the all body systems to conditions presenting in the pre-hospital environment; (GA8)

LO4 - Integrate pathophysiological principles and assessment findings to develop a management plans for individuals and use a collaborative care approach in relation to the planning, implementation and evaluation of evidence-based paramedic practice; (GA4, GA7)

LO5 - Understand the central issues relating to the evolution of Paramedicine as a profession including registration and dynamic models of scope of practice and debate the appropriateness of models of extended care in Paramedicine; (GA2, GA4, GA8)

LO6 - Identify and describe the Paramedic responsibilities for management of the dying/ deceased patient in the field. (GA1, GA2)

Graduate attributes

GA1 - demonstrate respect for the dignity of each individual and for human diversity 

GA2 - recognise their responsibility to the common good, the environment and society 

GA4 - think critically and reflectively 

GA5 - demonstrate values, knowledge, skills and attitudes appropriate to the discipline and/or profession 

GA7 - work both autonomously and collaboratively 

GA8 - locate, organise, analyse, synthesise and evaluate information 

Paramedicine Board of Australia Professional Capabilities for Registered Paramedics

Website of capabilities:

Standard/Attributes/CriteriaLearning Outcomes

1.1, 1.2, 1.3, 3.1, 3.2, 3.3, 4.1, 4.2, 4.3, 4.5, 4.6, 5.2, 5.3, 5.4, 5.6


1.1, 1.2, 1.3, 3.1, 3.2, 3.3, 4.1, 4.2, 4.3, 4.5, 4.6, 5.2, 5.3, 5.4, 5.6


1.1, 1.2, 3.1, 3.2, 3.3, 4.1, 4.2, 4.3, 5.2, 5.3, 5.4, 5.6


1.1, 1.2, 1.3, 3.2, 3.3, 4.1, 4.2, 4.3, 4.5, 4.6, 5.3, 5.4, 5.6


1.1, 1.2, 1.3, 3.1, 3.2, 3.3, 4.1, 4.2, 4.3, 4.5, 4.6, 5.2, 5.3, 5.4, 5.6


1.1, 1.2, 1.3, 3.1, 3.2, 3.3, 4.1, 4.2, 4.3, 4.5, 4.6, 5.2, 5.3, 5.4, 5.6



Topics will include:

  • Clinical decision-making / clinical judgment
  • Consolidation of Paramedic clinical approach and essential Paramedic skills
  • Individuals from special populations
  • Chronic illness
  • Comorbidities
  • Disability
  • The older adult
  • Bariatric clients
  • Individuals from culturally and linguistically diverse groups
  • Dehydration and fluid replacement and associated pharmacology 
  • Children and infants
  • Interprofessional collaboration
  • Interprofessional communication
  • Conditions associated with police intervention
  • Inter-hospital transfers
  • Other relevant agencies
  • Future directions in Paramedic practice
  • Changes in models of practice to meet changing needs of society
  • The roles and responsibilities of the paramedic in managing deceased patients including cultural and ritual considerations
  • The roles and responsibilities of the paramedic in palliative care 
  • Principles and legalities related to passive and active euthanasia
  • Extended care models of paramedic practice

Specific Skills

  • Complex scenario and simulated practice
  • Patient management and Paramedic interventions 
  • Fluid therapy
  • Drug and fluid dose calculations
  • Consolidation of all skills across the paramedic curriculum

Learning and teaching strategy and rationale

Modes of delivery in this unit include lectures, laboratories, simulations, online activities and self-directed study. Consistent with adult learning principles, the teaching and learning strategies used within these modes of delivery will provide students with advanced knowledge and skills relevant to professional paramedic practice.  These strategies will also support students in meeting the aim, learning outcomes and graduate attributes of the unit and the broader course learning outcomes. Learning and teaching strategies will reflect respect for the individual as an independent learner. Students will be expected to take responsibility for their learning and to participate actively with peers. 

Located in the third year of the programme, this theory unit includes some face-to-face teaching hours and an increased online component of learning. Lectures are utilised to convey content and its central principles while laboratories and simulation deliver interactive learning sessions which assist students in applying theory to clinical practice, build critical reflective skills, while also providing an opportunity to continue their learning. Online materials provide students with the opportunity to manage the significant component of directed, self-motivated study required for graduate practice and life-long learning skills. In addition, students will undertake a clinical placement and/or simulation experience depending upon the state-based placement availability.

Assessment strategy and rationale

A range of assessment procedures will be used to meet the unit learning outcomes and develop graduate attributes consistent with University assessment requirements. 

There are two hurdles in this clinical practice unit; the hurdles assess knowledge that is so essential to the unit that a student  cannot progress in the course if a pass is not achieved in each hurdle.  In real world practice it is a requirement that the paramedic student demonstrates professional competence on clinical placement, which can extend to the simulated environment. Achieving pass as a standard for the Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) is  mandatory. The drug calculation and skills assessment are marked as Pass/Fail. To pass this unit, all three assessment tasks need to be completed successfully. The supervised clinical placement provides a safe environment where students can provide assisted person-centred care essential for successful graduate practice.  The drug calculation and skills assessments ensures students have vital skills and knowledge for safe and effective practice. 

Overview of assessments

Brief Description of Kind and Purpose of Assessment TasksWeightingLearning OutcomesGraduate Attributes

Objective Structured Clinical Examination

Enables students to demonstrate competency in professional behavour, communication skills and safe and effective implementation of paramedic skills and knowledge in trauma emergencies.


LO1, LO2, LO3, LO4, LO6

GA1, GA2, GA4, GA5, GA7, GA8

Drug Calculation and Skills Assessment

Enables students to achieve capability in drug calculations and skills for safe practice. 


LO1, LO2, LO3, LO4

GA1, GA4, GA5, GA7, GA8

Clinical Placement and/or Simulation

Enables students to demonstrate competency in professional behaviour, communication skills and safe and effective implementation of both foundational and trauma emergency skills and knowledge.


LO1, LO2, LO3, LO4, LO5, LO6

GA1, GA2, GA4, GA5, GA7, GA8

Representative texts and references

Ambulance Victoria (2016). Ambulance Victoria clinical practice guidelines for ambulance and MICA paramedics. Doncaster: Ambulance Victoria.

Ambulance Victoria (2015). Clinical work instructions. Doncaster, Victoria: Ambulance Victoria.

Copstead, L., & Banasik, J. (Eds). (2013). Pathophysiology (5th ed.). Philadelphia, PA: Saunders.

Eburn, M. (2013).  Emergency law: Rights, liabilities and duties of emergency workers and volunteers (4th ed.). Leichardt, N.S.W.: Federation Press.

Guyton, A.C., & Hall, J.E. (2016). Guyton and Hall textbook of medical physiology (13th ed.). Philadelphia, PA.: Elsevier.

McCance, K., & Huether. S, (2014). Pathophysiology: The biologic basis for disease in adults and children  (7th ed.). St Louis: Mosby.

Sanders, M. J. (2012). Mosby’s paramedic textbook (4th ed.). St Louis: Mosby.

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