Credit points


Campus offering

No unit offerings are currently available for this unit


BUFP103 First Nations of Australia: Culture History & Politics


BUSN209 - First Peoples

Unit rationale, description and aim

This unit presents students with general theories, terminology and concepts relating to enterprise and entrepreneurship from a First Nations perspective through stewardship, subsidiarity and the common good. It will provide students with an opportunity to gain a further understanding of the effectiveness of First Nations enterprises and entrepreneurs by studying business environments, organisations and the impact of the intersectionality with mainstream environments domestically and internationally with a focus on trade by First Nations peoples historically and in contemporary society. It then explores the opportunities for economic participation by First Nations peoples, and includes analysis of theoretical discussions around the parameters of First Nations’ entrepreneurship. The experiences of First Nations entrepreneurs are used as case studies.

Learning outcomes

To successfully complete this unit you will be able to demonstrate you have achieved the learning outcomes (LO) detailed in the below table.

Each outcome is informed by a number of graduate capabilities (GC) to ensure your work in this, and every unit, is part of a larger goal of graduating from ACU with the attributes of insight, empathy, imagination and impact.

Explore the graduate capabilities.

On successful completion of this unit, students should be able to:

LO1 - Demonstrate an understanding of Australian First Nations’ trade and commerce historically and in contemporary society (GA5, GA8)

LO2 - Evaluate the political, economic, demographic and cultural factors influencing First Nations business operations in a dynamic global and domestic business environment (GA5, GA6)

LO3 - Develop an understanding of the traits and behaviours of successful First Nations entrepreneurship and enterprises and their contribution to stewardship, subsidiarity and the common good (GA2, GA5)

LO4 - Analyse critically issues that will affect and assist First Nations businesses to compete in industry sectors (GA4, GA5)

LO5 - Evaluate the impact of entrepreneurial approaches to business and the impact on the cultures and communities of First Nations’ people and communicate this to various stakeholders (GA5, GA9)

Graduate attributes

GA2 - recognise their responsibility to the common good, the environment and society 

GA4 - think critically and reflectively 

GA5 - demonstrate values, knowledge, skills and attitudes appropriate to the discipline and/or profession 

GA6 - solve problems in a variety of settings taking local and international perspectives into account

GA8 - locate, organise, analyse, synthesise and evaluate information 

GA9 - demonstrate effective communication in oral and written English language and visual media 


Topics will include:

  • The First Entrepreneurs
  • Traits and behaviours
  • Development Our Way
  • First Nations’ business contribution to the Australian economy
  • The First Nations’ Entrepreneur
  • First Nations’ start-ups
  • Community- based enterprise
  • Industry Strategies for First Nations
  • First Nations Peoples in International Business
  • Sourcing Financial Resources
  • Overcoming barriers
  • First Nations’ women and entrepreneurship
  • Stewardship, subsidiarity and the common good
  • The impact of business on First nation Communities

Learning and teaching strategy and rationale

This unit will be taught in multi-modal program using a variety of delivery strategies including online delivery to the equivalent 12 weeks semester. Where face to face contact is included this may involve intensive away from base delivery. Students should anticipate spending 150 hours of study for this unit, including weekly learning activities, readings and assignment preparation.

Assessment strategy and rationale

A range of assessment procedures will be used to meet the unit learning outcomes and develop graduate attributes consistent with University assessment requirements. Such procedures may include, but are not limited to: essays, reports, examinations, student presentations or case studies.

In order to pass this unit, students are required to: submit all assessment pieces and obtain 50% overall. The assessment tasks for this unit are designed for students to demonstrate their  achievement of each learning outcome. 

Overview of assessments

Brief Description of Kind and Purpose of Assessment TasksWeightingLearning OutcomesGraduate Attributes

Assessment Task 1: Critical Reflection

This assessment task consists of a 1000-word written journal entailing the reflection and evaluation of the first 5 weeks of this unit. This task requires students to work autonomously to synthesise, and analyse their knowledge in relation to First Nations enterprises and reflect on their contribution to stewardship, subsidiarity and the common good.

Submission Type: Individual

Assessment Method: Critical Reflection

Artefact: Written report


LO1, LO3

GA2, GA5, GA8

Assessment Task 2:  Essay

This assessment provide opportunity for student to locate three organisational structures that contribute to the growth of First Nations entrepreneurship and enterprise within Australia. Students are also required to analyse  and evaluate in a 1250 word essay the relevant organisational structures as to how they address issues surrounding stewardship,  subsidiarity and the common good within First nations businesses. Students are also required to critically analyse local, national and global environments in which they operate and how they impact on communities. 

Submission Type: Individual

Assessment Method: Essay

Artefact: Written report


LO2, LO3

GA2, GA5, GA6

Assessment Task 3: Major Essay

Utilising a case study that will be assigned, provide an analysis of how First Nations entrepreneurship contributes to the cultures and communities of First nations’ people in a 1750 word Essay. Students may wish to consider a business or a collection of businesses or an industry and critically analyse and recommend interventions that assist First Nations businesses to compete in industry sector and communicate this effectively to various stakeholders.

Submission Type: Individual

Assessment Method: Essay

Artefact: Written essay


LO4, LO5

GA4, GA5, GA9

Representative texts and references

Altman, Jon & Biddle, Nicholas, 2014. Refiguring Indigenous economies: a 21st-century perspective. In The Cambridge Economic History of Australia. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 530–554.

Daes, E. 2004. The Impact of globalization on Indigenous intellectual property, Lecture, May 25, Museum of Sydney, Sydney.

Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade, 2019. Showcasing Indigenous Business, Business Envoy. Retrieved from

Hershey, R., 2012. Globalization and its special and significant Impacts on Indigenous Communities. Arizona Legal Studies Discussion Paper No. 12-19.

Jacobsen, D., 2017. Tourism enterprises beyond the margins: the relational practices of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander SMEs in remote Australia. Tourism planning & development, 14(1), pp.31–49.

KPMG, 2016. Collaborative Ideas for Igniting the Indigenous Economy. Retrieved from

McNaughton, Rod B & Gray, Brendan, 2017. Entrepreneurship and resilient communities – introduction to the special issue. Journal of Enterprising Communities: People and Places in the Global Economy, 11(1), pp.2–19.

Mika, Jason P et al., 2017. Perspectives on indigenous entrepreneurship, innovation and enterprise. Journal of management & organization, 23(6), pp.767–773.

Rademaker, Laura and Rowse Tim (eds), 2020. Indigenous Self-Determination in Australia – Histories and Historiography, ANU Press.

Sanders, W., 2016. Engaging Indigenous Economy. Debating diverse approaches, ANU Press.

Steering Committee for the Review of Government Service Provision (SCFRGSP), 2016. Overcoming Indigenous Disadvantage: Key Indicators 2016, Productivity Commission, Canberra. Retrieved from:

Wood, Glenice J & Davidson, Marilyn J, 2011. A review of male and female Australian indigenous entrepreneurs. Gender in management, 26(4), pp.311–326

Have a question?

We're available 9am–5pm AEDT,
Monday to Friday

If you’ve got a question, our AskACU team has you covered. You can search FAQs, text us, email, live chat, call – whatever works for you.

Live chat with us now

Chat to our team for real-time
answers to your questions.

Launch live chat

Visit our FAQs page

Find answers to some commonly
asked questions.

See our FAQs