Dr Sue Kmetko


Biblical and Early Christian Studies

PhD candidate

Previous Qualifications: B.Sc., Dip.Ed. (University of Melbourne), M.Div. (University of Divinity)

Thesis Title: The Function and Significance of the Middle Voice in the Greek New Testament

Supervisor: Dr Michael Theophilos


Laying hold of the impetus generated in recent decades by the demise of the concept of deponency for Greek middle verbs, this thesis aims to open new vistas for understanding the middle voice in New Testament texts. The investigation focuses on verbs with middle morphology in both present and aorist tenses in 1 Thessalonians and 2 Corinthians, in conversation with their wider application within Christian Scripture, contemporaneous literature and the documentary papyri of the Koine Greek era. Descriptors of the middle voice gleaned from Grammars and linguistic studies are employed to examine the function of each verb in its context within the Epistle. The collated results lead to the proposal that middle form does indeed indicate middle function. Such an assertion induces potential exegetical implications which are exemplified by sample studies of middle verbs in Paul’s Epistle to the Galatians.


Sue is highly motivated to explore and promote the original language of the New Testament in order to probe the depths of meaning encased therein. Being a secondary school teacher before undertaking theological studies, she now combines both disciplines in teaching New Testament Greek and Introduction to New Testament Interpretation at Stirling Theological College, Melbourne. During the course of her studies she has presented research papers at SBL conferences in St. Andrews, Buenos Aires and San Antonio. Her wider theological interests include hermeneutics and the distinctiveness of Christian testimony.

See also Sue’s Academia page


ACU Institute for Religion and Critical Inquiry

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